In Ghana, more than 77% of the population depends on biomass fuels for cooking. Previous studies show that solid fuel use (SFU) has adverse effects on pregnancy and child health outcomes. Yet, no previous study considered potential effects on early child development indicators (ECDI), nor how SFU effects may vary by gender, and rural and urban areas. We investigated the associations of SFU with ECDI measures, and whether these associations exhibited sex and urban/rural differences. We used the 2011–2012 Ghana’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys–UNICEF (N = 3326 children; 3–4 years). Read more about JPB Fellow Raphael Arku’s research.