The beneficial association between nature contact and human health is often explained with psycho-evolutionary frameworks such as stress reduction theory and the savanna hypothesis. However, evidence is limited on how natural environments that are not green affect stress. One example is the desert, which does not offer affordances for nourishment or safety in an evolutionary sense. In this study, we determine the effect of a virtual reality (VR) exposure to a desert vs. green environment among 95 healthy adult male residents of El Paso, Texas. Read more.